Summary of Research Findings
Each of the character strengths seem to relate positively to one another but this varies quite a bit by degree. This section
explores research studies that examine the mutual impact or link between two or more character strengths to one another.
- Examined 4 character strengths dyads and their connection with meaning in life. For three dyads (honesty/kindness, love/social
intelligence, and hope/gratitude), meaning was highest when the strengths within a pair were both high; the opposite
was found for bravery/fairness where the degree of discrepancy predicted life meaning when bravery was higher (Allan,
2014). This research supports the concepts of “character strengths balance” and that “all 24 character
Allan, B.A. (2014). Balance among character strengths and meaning in life.
Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI 10.1007/s10902-014-9557-9
- This article presents several studies that support the mutual impact (predictive abilities) of two character strengths
upon one another). It found that gratitude and humility reinforce one another (Kruse et al., 2014). The VIA Institute
has referred to this phenomenon in which the expression of one strength naturally elicit the expression of other strengths
as "the towing principle" and also as a "virtuous circle."
Kruse, E., Chancellor, J., Ruberton, P. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2014). An upward spiral between gratitude and humility.
Social, Psychological, and Personality Science, 1-10. DOI: 10.1177/1948550614534700.
- This study draws a connection between humility, awe, and spirituality, in a religious context (Krause & Hayward, 2014).
Krause, N., & Hayward, R. D. (2014). Religious involvement and humility.
Journal of Positive Psychology, 9 (3), 254-265.
- This study in the workplace finds a connection between emotional intelligence and teamwork (Farh, Seo, & Tesluk, 2012).
Farh, C. I. C. C., Seo, M. G., & Tesluk, P. E. (2012). Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job
performance: The moderating role of job context.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 97 (4), 890-900.
- This study draws a relationship between one dimension of spirituality/religiousness (positive/neutral reminders of God)
and improved self-regulation (Laurin, Kay, & Fitzsimons, 2011).
Laurin, K., Kay, A. C., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2011). Divergent effects of activating thoughts of God on self-regulation.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102 (1), 4-21.
- The interaction of teamwork and love of learning are at the heart of this article reviewing a pedagogy around team-based
learning, which lead to student strengths development (Thomas & McPherson, 2011).
Thomas, M. D., & McPherson, B. J. (2011). Teaching positive psychology using team-based learning.
Journal of Positive Psychology, 6 (6), 487-491.
- This study examines the unique effects of gratitude and of forgiveness and finds that the former is often more robust than
the latter for a variety of mental health outcomes; argues for more studies reflecting on character strength profiles/combinations,
rather than solely studying strengths in isolation from one another (Breen et al., 2010).
Breen, W. E., Kashdan, T. B., Lenser, M. L., & Fincham, F. D. (2010). Gratitude and forgiveness: Convergence and
divergence on self-report and informant ratings.
Personality and Individual Differences, 49 (8), 932-937.
- This study examined the predictive potential of self-compassion (i.e., the character strength of kindness turned inward).
This strength related positively with wisdom/perspective and optimism/hope, among other positive benefits (Neely et al.,
Neely, M. E., Schallert, D. L., Mohammed, S. S., Roberts, R. M., & Chen Y. (2009). Self-kindness when facing stress:
The role of self-compassion, goal regulation, and support in college students’ well-being.
Motivation and Emotion, 33, 88-97.